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July in Pop Culture History

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The 1920s

July 1
► 1881 - The world's first international telephone call was made between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States.

► 1903 - The first Tour de France bicycle race began.

► 1943 - Tokyo City merged with Tokyo Prefecture area and was dissolved. Since this date, no city in Japan actually has the name "Tokyo" - that is, present-day Tokyo is not officially a city.

► 1963 - ZIP codes were introduced for US mail.

► 1965 - Maurice Masse, a farmer, in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France said he was 'frozen' by aliens while investigating the strange noises they were making.

► 1971 - The Post Office Department (1792–1971) became the United States Postal Service

► 1972 - The first Gay Pride march in England took place.

► 1979 - Sony introduced the Walkman (in Japan).

► 1980 - "O Canada" officially became the national anthem of Canada.

► 1985 - A&E separated from sister channel Nickelodeon.

► 1984 - The PG-13 rating is introduced by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).

► 1985 - Nike-at-Nite began on Nickelodeon

► 1991 - Court TV, which later became truTV, began airing in the US.

► 2007 - Smoking in England was banned in all public indoor spaces.

► 2007 - The Concert for Diana was held at the new Wembley Stadium in London and broadcast in 140 countries, on which would have been her 46th birthday.

July 2
► 1698 - Thomas Savery patented the first steam engine.

► 1776 - The Continental Congress adopted a resolution severing ties with the Kingdom of Great Britain, although the final wording of the formal Declaration of Independence was not approved until July 4.

► 1839 - 53 African slaves took over the slave ship Amistad.

► 1890 - The US Congress passes the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

► 1962 - The first Wal-Mart store opened in Rogers, Arkansas.

► 1964 - US President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the (Republican written) Civil Rights Act of 1964 meant to prohibit segregation in public places.

► 2002 - Steve Fossett became the first person to fly solo around the world (Australia to Australia ) nonstop in a balloon in just under two weeks.

► 2005 - The Live 8 benefit concerts - more than 1,000 musicians performed and were broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks.

July 3
► 1819 - The Bank of Savings in New York City, an early savings bank in the United States, opened. Many think it was the oldest, but the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, was headquartered in Philadelphia, PA. PSFS was founded in December 4, 1816.

► 1852 - Congress established the United States' 2nd mint in San Francisco.

► 1884 - Dow Jones and Company published its first stock average. The company was founded by three reporters: Charles Dow, Edward Jones, and Charles Bergstresser.

► 1952 - The Constitution of Puerto Rico was approved by the Congress of the United States.

► 1969 - Rolling Stone member Brian Jones dies in an accidental drowning (aged 27)

► 1969 - Lulu the elephant went off script on live BBC television's 'Blue Peter,' making the first on-air animal "blooper" we could find.

► 1971 - Doors frontman Jim Morrison died of an accidental drug overdose (aged 27)

► 1985 - Back to the Future was released, featuring the now famous 1981 DeLorean DMC-12 time machine/automobile

July 4
► 1054 - A supernova was seen for several months by Chinese, Arab near the star Zeta Tauri - its remnants form the Crab Nebula.

► 1826 - John Adams, second president of the United States, died the same day as Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the United States' Declaration of Independence. The two founding fathers did not get along during their careers.

► 1827 - Slavery was abolished in New York State.

► 1855 - The first edition of Walt Whitman's book of poems, Leaves of Grass, was published.

► 1862 - Lewis Carroll told 10-year-old Alice Liddell a story that was the basis for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, published in 1865.

► 1939 - Lou Gehrig, gave his famous "The luckiest man on the face of the earth" speech, and announced his retirement from major league baseball.

► 1946 - The Philippines gained full independence from the United States.

► 1950 - Radio Free Europe was first broadcast.

► 1961 - Soviet Submarine k-19 Nuclear Underwater Disaster

► 1966 - US President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act into United States law, effective in 1967.

► 1976 - The Clash performed publicly for the first time at The Black Swan, in Sheffield, England.

► 1997 - NASA's Pathfinder space probe landed on the surface of Mars.

► 2005 - The Deep Impact collider struck the comet Tempel 1.

► 2012 - The discovery of particles consistent with the "God particle" - Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider were announced at CERN.

July 5
► 1687 - Isaac Newton published "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy."

► 1841 - Thomas Cook organized the first package excursion (planned vacation tour), from Leicester to Loughborough.

► 1865 - William Booth and his wife Catherine establish the Christian Mission, later known as the Salvation Army (1878).

► 1921 - Chicago White Sox players were accused of "throwing" (lose intentionally) the World Series.

► 1937 - Spam (the luncheon meat, not the internet junk) was introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.

► 1946 - French designer Louis Reard introduced the Bikini in Paris.

► 1954 - The BBC broadcasted its first television news bulletin.

► 1971 - The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, lowering the American voting age from 21 to 18 years, was formally certified by President Richard Nixon.

► 1996 - Dolly the sheep was born - the first mammal cloned from an adult cell (she actually had three monthers)

► 2012 - The Shard in London was inaugurated as the tallest building in Europe, with a height of 1,020 ft.

July 6
► 1189 - Richard I "the Lionheart" acceded to the English throne.

► 1348 - Pope Clement VI issued a papal bull (rule) protecting the Jews accused of having caused the Black Death.

► 1415 - Jan Hus, an early church reformer, was condemned as a heretic and then burned at the stake.

► 1483 - Richard III was crowned King of England. Although he died in 1485, his body was lost until 2013. Because of that, many people consider him the greatest 'hide and seek' champion of all time.

► 1535 - Sir (& Catholic Saint) Thomas More is executed for treason against King Henry VIII.

► 1865 - The first issue of The Nation magazine is published.

► 1933 - The first Major League Baseball All-Star Game was played in Chicago's Comiskey Park. The American League defeated the National League 4–2.

► 1947 - The AK-47 assault rifle went into production in the Soviet Union.

July 7
► 1456 - A retrial verdict acquitted Joan of Arc of heresy, authorized by Pope Callixtus III, 25 years after her death.

► 1520 - Spanish conquistadores defeated a larger Aztec army at the Battle of Otumba.

► 1898 - US President William McKinley signed the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.

► 1907 - Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. staged his first 'Ziegfeld Follies' on the roof of the New York Theater in New York City.

► 1928 - Sliced bread was sold for the first time, by the Chillicothe Baking Company of Chillicothe, Missouri.

► 1930 - The construction of the Hoover Dam began. It was completed/dedicated on September 30, 1935

► 1946 - Mother Francesca S. Cabrini becomes the first American to be canonized by the Catholic Church.

► 1946 - Howard Hughes crashed his XF-11 reconnaissance aircraft prototype in a Beverly Hills neighborhood.

► 1947 - The Roswell incident, a reported crash of an alien spaceship near Roswell in New Mexico.

► 1954 - Elvis Presley made his radio debut when WHBQ Memphis played his recording for Sun Records, "That's All Right."

► 1981 - US President Ronald Reagan (R) appointed Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female member of the Supreme Court of the United States.

► 2005 - A series of four explosions occurred on London's transportation system killing 56 people including four suicide bombers and injuring over 700 others.

► 2006 - Psych premiered on USA

► 2009 - Warehouse 13 premiered on Syfy

July 8
► 1776 - The Liberty Bell rang at Pennsylvania State House (now Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, inviting citizens to the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence.

► 1876 – White supremacists killed five Black Republicans in Hamburg, South Carolina.

► 1889 - The first issue of The Wall Street Journal was published.

► 1932 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average reached its lowest level of the Great Depression, closing at 41.22.

► 1947 - Newspapers begin reporting on a UFO crash that had happened one day earlier.

► 1948 - The United States Air Force accepted its first female recruits into a program called Women in the Air Force (WAF).

► 1991- Shop Til' You Drop premiered on Lifetime

► 1992- Melrose Place made its' debut on FOX as a follow-up to 90210

► 1994 - Kim Jong-il assumed supreme leadership of North Korea upon the death of his father, Kim Il-sung.

July 9
► 1540 - King Henry VIII of England annulled the marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves.

► 1776 - George Washington ordered the Declaration of Independence to be read out loud to members of the Continental Army in New York, New York, for the first time.

► 1868 - The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified, insuring African Americans (ex-slaves born in the United States) full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law.

► 1877 - The inaugural Wimbledon Tennis Championships began at the All England Club.

► 1922 - Future film star Johnny Weissmuller swam the 100 meters freestyle in 58.6 seconds, breaking the world swimming record and the 'minute barrier'.

► 1962 - Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans exhibition opened at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles.

► 1981 - Donkey Kong, a video game created by Nintendo, was released, featuring the debut of Mario.

July 10
► 1913 - Death Valley, California, hits 134 °F (57 °C), the highest temperature recorded in the United States.

► 1921 - (Sunday) Bloody Sunday: Sixteen people were killed and 161 houses destroyed during rioting and gun battles in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

► 1925 - In Dayton, Tennessee, the "Monkey Trial" began with John T. Scopes, a high school science teacher accused of teaching the theory of evolution in violation of the Butler Act.

► 1938 - Howard Hughes set a record by completing a 91-hour airplane flight around the world.

► 1950 - Your Hit Parade debuted on NBC.

► 1962 - Telstar, the world's first communications satellite, was launched into orbit. An instrumental pop tune by The Tornadoes titled after the event reached #1 on the Billboard Pop Music Chart.

► 1966 - Ultraman debuted in Japan

► 1978 - World News Tonight premiered on ABC.

July 11
► 1796 - The United States took possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.

► 1798 - The United States Marine Corps was re-established (they had been disbanded after the American Revolutionary War).

► 1889 - Tijuana, Mexico, was founded.

► 1893 - The first cultured pearl was created under the direction of Kokichi Mikimoto, in Japan.

► 1914 - Babe Ruth made his debut in Major League Baseball with the Boston Red Sox.

► 1922 - The Daisy Dell reopened as The Hollywood Bowl.

► 1960 - To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee was published in the United States.

► 1972 - The first game of the World Chess Championship 1972 between challenger Bobby Fischer and defending champion Boris Spassky began.

► 1973 - Varig Flight 820 crashed near Paris, France on approach to Orly Airport, killing 123 of the 134 on board. In response, the FAA (The Federal Aviation Authority) banned smoking on flights.

► 1977 - Martin Luther King, Jr. was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

► 1979 - America's first space station, Skylab, was destroyed as it re-entered the Earth's atmosphere over the Indian Ocean.

► 2012 - Astronomers announced the discovery of Styx, the fifth moon of Pluto.

July 12
► 927 - Æthelstan, King of England, secured a pledge from Constantine II of Scotland that the latter would not ally with Viking kings, beginning the process of unifying Great Britain. This is considered by most historians to the closest thing that England has to a foundation date.

► 1543 - King Henry VIII of England married his sixth (and last) wife, Catherine Parr, at Hampton Court Palace.

► 1862 - The Medal of Honor was authorized by the United States Congress. In 1990, Congress designated March 25 annually as "National Medal of Honor Day."

► 1962 - The Rolling Stones performed their first concert, at the Marquee Club in London, England, United Kingdom.

► 1997 - Oz premiered on HBO

► 2002 - Monk premiered on the USA Network

July 13
► 1787 - The Continental Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It also established procedures for the admission of new states and limits the expansion of slavery.

► 1977 - New York City Blackout of 1977

► 1985 - Live Aid was broadcast from both London and Philadelphia, on MTV and in syndication

► 2002 - Fox News Channel became the #1 cable TV news service of the US, beating long-time champ CNN

► 2013 - George Zimmerman was found not guilty in the shooting of Trayvon Martin.

July 14
► 1798 - The Sedition Act became law in the United States, making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the United States government.

► 1853 - Opening of the first major US World's Fair - the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations in New York City.

► 1874 - The 'Little Chicago Fire' of 1874 burns down 47 acres of the city, destroying 812 buildings, killing 20. The October 10, 1871 'Great Chicago Fire' was bigger.

► 1881 - Billy the Kid was shot and killed by frenemy Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner.

► 1911 - Harry Atwood, an exhibition pilot for the Wright Brothers, landed his airplane at the South Lawn of the White House.

► 1933 - Gleichschaltung: In Germany, all political parties were outlawed except the Nazi Party.

► 1933 - The Nazi eugenics plan began with the proclamation of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, which called for the compulsory sterilization of any citizen who suffered from alleged genetic disorders.

► 1060 - Jane Goodall arrived at the Gombe Stream Reserve in present-day Tanzania to begin her famous study of chimpanzees in the wild.

► 1969 - The United States $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 bills were officially withdrawn from circulation.

► 1992 - 386BSD as released by Lynne and William Jolitz beginning the Open Source Operating System Revolution. Linus Torvalds released his Linux soon afterwards.

► 2000 - A powerful solar flare, later named the Bastille Day event, caused a geomagnetic storm on Earth.

► 2008 - The Wendy Williams Show premiered, in syndication

July 15
► 850 (Earthquake) Iran

► 1149 - The reconstructed Church of the Holy Sepulchre was consecrated in Jerusalem.

► 1799 - The Rosetta Stone was found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign.

► 1834 - The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years. Several thousand people were actually executed over this time, about a dozen per year.

► 1838 - Ralph Waldo Emerson delivered the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Christian Community was not pleased.

► 1954 - First flight of the Boeing 367-80, prototype for both the Boeing 707 and C-135 series.

► 1979 - US President Jimmy Carter gives his so-called malaise speech, where he characterizes the greatest threat to the country as "this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation."

► 2003 - The Mozilla Foundation was established.

► 2006 - Twitter was launched. 140 characters could say a lot.

► 2007 - Rock of Love with Bret Michaels premiered on VH1

July 16
► 622 - The 354 day Islamic Calendar was established.

► 1769 - Father Junípero Serra founded California's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá, alter known as San Diego, California.

► 1790 - The District of Columbia was established as the capital of the United States with the Residence Act.

► 1862 - David Farragut was promoted to rear admiral, becoming the first officer in United States Navy to hold the rank.

► 1915 - The Boy Scout's First Order of the Arrow ceremony took place and the Order of the Arrow was founded.

► 1935 - The world's first parking meter was installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The first US patent for the device was filed by Roger W. Babson, on August 30, 1928.

► 1941 - Joe DiMaggio hit safely for the 56th consecutive game, a MLB record that still stands.

► 1945 - (Manhattan Project) Manhattan Project: The United States successfully detonated a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

► 1951 - The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger was published for the first time, by Little, Brown and Company.

► 1965 - The Mont Blanc Tunnel linking France and Italy opened.

July 17
► 1429 - Charles VII of France was crowned the King of France in the Reims Cathedral after a successful campaign by Joan of Arc.

► 1856 - The Great Train Wreck of 1856 in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, injuring over 100, and killing about 60 people.

► 1918 - Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his immediate family were murdered by Bolshevik Chekists at the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

► 1838 - Douglas Corrigan took off from Brooklyn to fly the "wrong way" to Ireland and becomes known as "Wrong Way" Corrigan.

► 1955 - Disneyland was dedicated and opened by Walt Disney in Anaheim, California.

► 1981 - A structural failure caused the collapse of a walkway at the Hyatt Regency in Kansas City, Missouri killing 114 people and injuring more than 200.

► 1989 - First flight of the Northrop B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber.

► 2014 - Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, a Boeing 777, was shot down near the border of Ukraine and Russia. All 298 people on board are killed.

July 18
► 1870 - The First Vatican Council decreed the dogma of papal infallibility.

► 1925 - Adolf Hitler published Mein Kampf.

► 1968 - Intel was founded in Mountain View, California.

► 1969 - Off of Chappaquiddick Island, Senator Ted Kennedy from Massachusetts drove an Oldsmobile off a bridge and his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, died.

► 1976 - Nadia Comaneci became the first person in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 in gymnastics at the 1976 Summer Olympics.

► 2013 - The Government of Detroit filed for the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history, with approximately $20B in debt.

July 19
► 64 - Great Fire of Rome occurred, destroying half of the city. Contrary to rumors, Nero did not play the fiddle while it burned, but did blame "the Christians."

► 1848 - A two-day Women's Rights Convention opened in Seneca Falls, New York.

► 1952 - The Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were opened in Helsinki, Finland.

► 1995 - Road Rules made its debut on MTV

► 1996 - Tales From The Crypt TV series came to an end

July 20
► 1940 - California opened its first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway.

► 1960 - The Polaris missile was successfully launched from a submarine, the USS George Washington, for the first time.

► 1969 - A live transmission from the Moon was viewed by 720 million people around the world, with the landing of Apollo 11, at 10:56 p.m. EDT on July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin stepped onto the surface of the Moon, live on international television.

► 1976 - The American Viking 1 spacecraft successfully landed on Mars.

► 1977 - The Central Intelligence Agency released documents under the Freedom of Information Act revealing it had engaged in mind control experiments.

► 1982 - The Provisional IRA detonated two bombs in Hyde Park and Regent's Park in central London, killing eight soldiers, wounding forty-seven people, and killing seven horses.

► 1997 - The fully restored USS Constitution (a.k.a. Old Ironsides) celebrated its 200th birthday by setting sail again for the first time in 116 years.

► 2005 - Criss Angel Mindfreak debuted on A&E

July 21
► 356 BC - The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was destroyed by arson.

► 1865 - In Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shot and killed Davis Tutt, in what is considered as the first western showdown.

► 1873 - Near Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James-Younger Gang pulled off the first successful train robbery in the 'American Old West.'

► 1902 - Willis Carrier showed his air conditioner concept in Buffalo, New York.

► 1925 - In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes was found guilty of teaching evolution in class, and fined $100.

► 1949 - The United States Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO).

► 1952 (Earthquake) California/Arizona/Nevada

► 1983 - The world's lowest temperature in an inhabited location was recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica (-128.6 °F, -89.2 °C).

► 2011 - NASA's Space Shuttle program ends with the landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-135.

July 22
► 1933 - Wiley Post became the first person to fly solo around the world, traveling 15,596 miles (25,099 km) in seven days, 18 hours and 45 minutes.

► 1934 - In front of Chicago's Biograph Theater, "Public Enemy No. 1" John Dillinger was shot and killed by FBI agents.

► 1962 - Mariner 1 spacecraft flew off course several minutes after launch and had to be destroyed by remote control.

► 1991 - Jeffrey Dahmer was arrested in Milwaukee after police discovered human remains in his apartment.

► 1996- The Daily Show premiered on Comedy Central

► 2011 - Norway was the location of twin terror attacks, the first being a bomb blast which targeted government buildings in central Oslo(killing 8 and injuring 209), the second being a massacre at a youth camp on the island of Utøya, killing 69 and injuring 110.

July 23
► 1829 - In the United States, William Austin Burt patented (#5581X) the typographer, an early typewriter.

► 1903 - The Ford Motor Company sold and shipped its first car, the Ford Model A.

► 1926 - Fox Film bought the patents of the Movietone sound system, for recording sound onto film.

► 1961 - The Sandinista National Liberation Front was founded in Nicaragua.

► 1962 - Telstar relayed the first publicly transmitted, live, trans-Atlantic television program, featuring CBS's Walter Cronkite and NBC's Chet Huntley in New York, and the BBC's Richard Dimbleby in Brussels.

► 1972 - The United States launched Landsat 1, the first Earth-resources satellite. The spacecraft was turned off on January 6, 1978, due to overheating.

► 1984 - Vanessa Williams became the first Miss America to resign when she surrendered her crown after (earlier) nude photos of her appeared in Penthouse magazine.

► 1995 - Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered, and was visible to the naked eye on Earth a year later.

July 24
► 1567 - Mary, Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate and replaced by her 1-year-old son James VI, after the sudden death of one husband and the quick marriage to another.

► 1823 - Slavery was abolished in Chile.

► 1847 - Brigham Young brought 148 Mormon pioneers into Salt Lake Valley, establishing Salt Lake City.

► 1901 - Writer O. Henry (William Sydney Porter) was released from prison in Columbus, Ohio after serving three years for embezzlement from a bank.

► 1915 - SS Eastland overturned on the Chicago River.

► 1935 - The Dust Bowl heat wave reached its peak, with temperatures of 109°F (43°C) in Chicago, Illinois and 104°F (40°C) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

► 1950 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station opened with the launch of Bumper rocket 8. The first 7 Bumpers were launched from White Sands, New Mexico.

► 1974 - The United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon did not have the authority to withhold subpoenaed White House tapes and they ordered him to surrender the tapes to the Watergate special prosecutor, Archibald Cox.

► 2002 - Democrat James Traficant was expelled from the United States House of Representatives on a vote of 420 to 1 (CA Representative Gary Condit didn't vote against him).

July 25
► 306 - Constantine I (Constantine The Great) was proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops.

► 1593 - Henry IV of France converted from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.

► 1668 (Earthquake) China

► 1861 - The United States Congress passed the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution, stating that the war was being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.

► 1959 - The SR.N1 hovercraft crossed the English Channel from Calais, France to Dover, England in just over two hours.

► 1965 - Bob Dylan played an electric guitar at the Newport Folk Festival, surprising fans of folk and rock music.

► 1976 - Viking 1 took the now-famous Face on Mars photo.

► 1978 - Louise Brown, the world's first "test tube baby" was born at Oldham General Hospital, Oldham, England.

► 1984 - Salyut 7 cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to perform a space walk.

► 2010 - WikiLeaks publishes classified documents about the War in Afghanistan, one of the largest leaks in US military history.

July 26
► 1775 - Allowance for The United States Post Office Department was established by the Second Continental Congress. It was called the Post Office Department 1792–1971. United States Postal Service was effective on July 1, 1971.

► 1847 - Liberia disbanded from the support of American Colonization Society, and formalized their settlement as the Republic of Liberia.

► 1887 - Dr. Esperanto's International Language, usually referred to as Unua Libro (English: First Book) was published.

► 1908 - United States Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issued an order to staff the Bureau of Investigation (BOI - later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI).

► 1941 - US President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.

► 1946 - Aloha Airlines began service from Honolulu International Airport

► 1963 - Syncom 2, the world's first geosynchronous satellite, was launched from Cape Canaveral. It was used to telecast the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo to the United States

July 27
► 1694 - A Royal charter was granted to the Bank of England.

► 1789 - The first US federal government agency, the Department of Foreign Affairs, was established (later renamed the Department of State).

► 1866 - The first permanent transatlantic telegraph cable was successfully completed, stretching from Valentia Island, Ireland, to Heart's Content, Newfoundland.

► 1890 - Vincent van Gogh shot himself, and died from the chest wound on July 29.

► 1929 - The Geneva Convention was signed at Geneva, Switzerland. The full official name is the 'Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva July 27, 1929.'

► 1940 - The animated short A Wild Hare is released, introducing the character of Bugs Bunny. "What's up, Doc?" was the first line the still-unnamed rabbit said to Elmer Fudd.

► 1981 - Adam Walsh, the 6-year-old son of John & Reve Walsh, was kidnapped in Hollywood, Florida and is found murdered two weeks later.

► 1987 - RMS Titanic Inc. begins the first expedited salvage of wreckage of the RMS Titanic.

► 1996 - In Atlanta, United States, a pipe bomb explodes at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics. Security guard Richard Jewell saved many people, although there were many injuries. Jewell was also falsely accused on setting the bomb. He was exonerated and

► Eric Robert Rudolph was later found to have been the bomber.

► 1999 - Tony Hawk landed the first '900' on a skateboard (two-and-a-half complete revolutions) at the fifth annual X Games in San Francisco, California.

July 28
► 1896 - The city of Miami, Florida was incorporated.

► 1945 - A US Army B-25 bomber crashed into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building, killing 14 and injuring 26.

► 1973 - Nearly 600,000 people attended the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen rock festival at the Watkins Glen International Raceway.

► 1976 (Earthquake) Tangshan, China

► 1996 - The remains of the prehistoric Kennewick Man were discovered near Kennewick, Washington.

► 2000 - Kathie Lee Gifford left Live with Regis and Kathie Lee

July 29
► 1148 - The Siege of Damascus ended with a crusader defeat and lead end of the Second Crusade.

► 1836 - Inauguration of the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Arch of Triumph of the Star) in Paris, France.

► 1914 - The 7 mile long Cape Cod Canal opened in Massachusetts.

► 1916 - Matheson Fire, Ontario

► 1921 - Adolf Hitler became the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.

► 1948 - After a hiatus of 12 years caused by World War II, the first Summer Olympics to be held since the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, open in London.

► 1958 - US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act into law, which created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

► 1976 - David Berkowitz (the "Son of Sam") killed one person and seriously wounded another in the first of a series of attacks in New York City.

► 1981 - A worldwide TV audience of over 700 million people watched the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer at St Paul's Cathedral in London.

► 1982 - Professional wrestler Jerry Lawler slapped actor Andy Kaufman in the face on the program Late Night with David Letterman, a staged event that prompted a several month 'war' between the two of them.

► 2005 - Astronomers announce their discovery of the dwarf planet, Eris.

July 30
► 762 - Baghdad was founded by caliph Al-Mansur.

► 1619 - In Jamestown, Virginia, the first representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time.

► 1729 - Founding of Baltimore, Maryland.

► 1733 - The first Masonic Grand Lodge in the future United States was constituted in Massachusetts.

► 1866 - New Orleans, Louisiana's Democratic government ordered police to raid an integrated Republican Party meeting, killing 40 people and injuring 150.

► 1871 - The Staten Island Ferry Westfield's boiler exploded, killing over 85 people.

► 1930 - In Montevideo, Uruguay won the first FIFA World Cup.

► 1932 - Premiere of Walt Disney's Flowers and Trees, the first cartoon short to use Technicolor and the first Academy Award-winning cartoon short.

► 1956 - A joint resolution of the US Congress was signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing In God we trust as the US national motto.

► 1962 - The Trans-Canada Highway, the largest national highway in the world, officially opened.

► 1965 - US President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Social Security Act of 1965 into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.

► 1975 - Jimmy Hoffa disappeared from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. He was declared dead in July 30, 1982.

► 2003 - In Mexico, the last Volkswagen Beetle rolled off the assembly line.

► 2006 - The world's longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time. It had run since January 1, 1964.

July 31
► 781 - The oldest recorded eruption of Mount Fuji in Japan.

► 1492 - Jews were expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree took effect.

► 1790 - The first US patent (X000001) as issued, to inventor Samuel Hopkins for a potash process.

► 1930 - The radio mystery program The Shadow aired for the first time.

► 1931 - New York television station W2XAB (now known as WCBS) began broadcasting.

► 1948 - Idlewild Field in New York, New York International Airport (later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport) was dedicated.

► 1995 - The Walt Disney Company announced their plans to purchase both ABC and ESPN

► 2006 - Cuba's Fidel Castro handed over power to brother, Raul Castro.





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